Grade 5-8 Science - Mr. Barrella
Grade 6 Homework 11/07/17
Grade 5 Homework
No less than 1 page, describe the differences between food chain, web, and pyramid. Based off your ecosystem.
Grade 7 Homework
Exam 11/08/17 Human Systems Continued, Plants and Nutrition Review Guide
■ Cells are organized for more effective functioning in multicellular organisms. Levels of organization for structure and function of a multicellular organism include cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. ■ Each system is composed of organs and tissues which perform specific functions and interact with each other. ■ Tissues, organs and organ systems help provide all cells with nutrients, oxygen, and waste removal. ■ Multicellular animals often have similar organs and specialized systems for carrying out major life activities. ■ Animals have a great variety of body plans and internal structures that contribute to their ability to maintain a balanced condition. ■ An organism’s overall body plan and its environment determine the way that the organism carries out the life processes. ■ All organisms require energy to survive. The amount of energy needed and the method for obtaining this energy vary among cells. Some cells use oxygen to release the energy stored in food. ■ The methods for obtaining nutrients vary among organisms. Producers, such as green plants, use light energy to make their own food. Consumers, such as animals, take in energy-rich foods. ■ Herbivores obtain energy from plants. Carnivores obtain energy from animals. Omnivores obtain energy from both plants and animals. Decomposers, such as bacteria and fungi, obtain energy by consuming wastes and/or dead organisms.■ Food provides molecules that serve as fuel and building material for all organisms. All living things, including plants, must release energy from their food, using it to carry on their life process. ■ Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism. ■ Regulation of an organism’s internal environment involves sensing the internal environment and changing physiological activities to keep conditions within the range required for survival. Regulation includes a variety of nervous and hormonal feedback systems. ■ The nervous and endocrine systems interact to control and coordinate the body’s responses to changes in the environment, and to regulate growth, development, and reproduction. Hormones are chemicals produced by the endocrine system; hormones regulate many body functions. ■ The respiratory system supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide (gas exchange). ■ The circulatory system moves substances to and from cells, where they are needed or produced, responding to changing demands. ■ The excretory system functions in the disposal of dissolved waste molecules, the elimination of liquid and gaseous wastes, and the removal of excess heat energy. ■ The digestive system consists of organs that are responsible for the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food. The breakdown process results in molecules that can be absorbed and transported to cells. ■ Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions in an organism. Metabolism can be influenced by hormones, exercise, diet and aging. ■ Energy in foods is measured in Calories. The total caloric value of each type of food varies. The number of Calories a person requires varies from person to person. ■ In order to maintain a balanced state, all organisms have a minimum daily intake of each type of nutrient based on species, size, age, sex, activity, etc. An imbalance in any of the nutrients might result in weight gain, weight loss, or diseased state. ■ The survival of an organism depends on its ability to sense and respond to its external environment. ■ Locomotion, necessary to escape danger, obtains food and shelter, and reproduce, is accomplished by the interaction of the skeletal and muscular systems, and coordinated by the nervous system.
Grade 8 Homework
Exam 11/08/17 - Evolution Review Guide (Also the material that I covered in class with DNA) PLEASE STUDY!!!!!!! Read the textbook to understand the following material.
■ Changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individual organisms with a particular trait. Small differences between parents and offspring can accumulate in successive generations so that descendants are very different from their ancestors. Individual organisms with certain traits are more likely to survive and have offspring than individuals without those traits. ■ Human activities such as selective breeding and advances in genetic engineering may affect the variations of species. ■ In all environments, organisms with similar needs may compete with one another for resources. ■ Extinction of species occurs when the environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of a species are insufficient to permit its survival. Extinction of species is common. Fossils are evidence that a great variety of species existed in the past. ■ Many thousands of layers of sedimentary rock provide evidence for the long history of Earth and for the long history of changing lifeforms whose remains are found in the rocks. Recently deposited rock layers are more likely to contain fossils resembling existing species. ■ Although the time needed for changes in a species is usually great, some species of insects and bacteria have undergone significant change in just a few years. ■ Since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have resulted in major pollution of air, water, and soil. Pollution has cumulative ecological effects such as acid rain, global warming, or ozone depletion. The survival of living things on our planet depends on the conservation and protection of Earth’s resources.■ Each human cell contains a copy of all genes needed to produce a human being. ■ In all organisms, genetic traits are passed on from generation to generation. ■ Some genes are dominant and some are recessive. Some traits are inherited by mechanism other than dominance and recessiveness. ■ The probability of traits being expressed can be determined using models of genetic inheritance. Some models of predictions are pedigree and Punnett squares. ■ The processes of sexual reproduction and mutation have been given rise to a variety of traits within species. ■ The male and female reproductive systems are responsible for producing sex cells necessary for the production of offspring. ■ The nervous and endocrine systems interact to control and coordinate the body’s responses to changes in the environment, and to regulate growth, development, and reproduction. Hormones are chemicals produced by the endocrine system; hormones regulate many body functions. ■ Disease breaks down the structures or functions of an organism. Some diseases are the result of failures of the system. Other diseases are the result of damage by infection from other organisms (germ theory). Specialized cells protect the body from infectious disease. The chemicals they produce identify and destroy microbes that enter the body.Hereditary information is contained in genes. Genes are composed of DNA that makes up the chromosomes of cells. ■ Each gene carries a single unit of information. A single inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one pair or by many pairs of genes. A human cell contains thousands of different genes.